ISO 17100:2015
Translation glossary

Translation services — Requirements for translation services

The ISO 17100 quality standard is  very similar to the current European standard for Translation Services Providers – EN 15038.

The ISO 17100:2015 of International Standard provides requirements for the core processes, resources, and other aspects necessary for the delivery of a quality translation service that meets applicable specifications.

Application of this International Standard also provides the means by which a translation service provider (TSP) can demonstrate conformity of specified translation services to this International Standard and the capability of its processes and resources to deliver a translation service that will meet the client’s and other applicable specifications.

Applicable specifications can include those of the client, of the TSP itself, and of any relevant industry codes, best-practice guides, or legislation.

The use of raw output from machine translation plus post-editing is outside the scope of this International Standard.

This International Standard does not apply to interpreting services.

2 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

2.1 Concepts related to translation and translation services

2.1.1

translate

render source language content (2.3.2) into target language content (2.3.3) in written form

2.1.2

translation

set of processes (2.1.4) to render source language content (2.3.2) into target language content (2.3.3) in written form

Note 1 to entry: A translation may refer to formats other than text-based formats (e.g. an audio file, image, etc.).

2.1.3

translation workflow

processes (2.1.4), or parts thereof, involved in achieving target language content (2.3.3)

2.1.4

process

set of interrelated and interacting activities performed in order to achieve a stated objective

2.1.5

product

output of process (2.1.4)

EXAMPLE 1:

A translated (2.1.1) version of a book purchased from a retail shop or on the web.

EXAMPLE 2:

Intellectual property in the content of a translated (2.1.1) book can be the subject of agreement between the author and the translator (2.4.4).

EXAMPLE 3:

A TSP (2.4.2) translating a book for a publisher is providing a service (2.1.6). Computer software can be purchased to support a range of translation (2.1.2)processes (2.1.4).

Note 1 to entry: Many product categories comprise elements that form a generic product. Its dominant element determines whether the product is designated processed material, intellectual property, software, or services (2.1.6).

2.1.6

translation service

intangible product (2.1.5) that is the result of interaction between client (2.4.3) and TSP (2.4.2)

2.1.7

interpret

render spoken or signed information from one language to another language in oral or signed form

2.2 Concepts related to translation workflow and technology

2.2.1

computer-aided translation

CAT

part of translation workflow (2.1.3) in which a variety of software applications are used to support the task of human translation (2.1.2)

Note 1 to entry: These computer programs are usually referred to as translation (2.1.2) tools, computer-aided translation tools, or, sometimes, translation environment tools (TEnTs).

2.2.2

machine translation

MT

automated translation (2.1.2) of text or speech from one natural language (2.3.8) to another using a computer system

2.2.3

machine translation output

outcome of machine translation (2.2.2)

2.2.4

post-edit

edit and correct machine translation output (2.2.3)

Note 1 to entry: This definition means that the post-editor will edit output automatically generated by a machine translation engine. It does not refer to a situation where a translator sees and uses a suggestion from a machine translation engine within a CAT (computer-aided translation) tool.

2.2.5

check

examination of target language content (2.3.3) carried out by the translator (2.4.4)

2.2.6

revision

bilingual examination of target language content (2.3.3) against source language content (2.3.2) for its suitability for the agreed purpose

Note 1 to entry: The term bilingual editing is sometimes used as a synonym for revision.

2.2.7

review

monolingual examination of target language content (2.3.3) for its suitability for the agreed purpose

Note 1 to entry: The term monolingual editing is sometimes used as a synonym for review.

2.2.8

proofread

examine the revised target language content (2.3.3) and applying corrections (2.5.4) before printing

2.2.9

project management

coordinating, managing, and monitoring a project throughout its complete lifecycle

2.2.10

style guide

set of editing and formatting instructions

2.3 Concepts related to language and content

2.3.1

content

anything representing meaningful information or knowledge

2.3.2

source language content

language content (2.3.1) to be translated (2.1.1)

2.3.3

target language content

language content (2.3.1)translated (2.1.1) from source language content (2.3.2)

2.3.4

text

content (2.3.1) in written form

2.3.5

source language

language of the source language content (2.3.2)

2.3.6

target language

language into which source language content (2.3.2) is translated (2.1.1)

2.3.7

language register

variety of language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social or industrial domain (2.3.10)

2.3.8

natural language

written, signed, or spoken human language

Note 1 to entry: For example, languages which are not natural include programming languages such as C++.

2.3.9

text-type convention

subset of specifications for the target language content (2.3.3) related to the content (2.3.1) type and domain (2.3.10)

Note 1 to entry: For example, with acts of law, there are formal conventions which are always used by legislators.

2.3.10

domain

subject field, sphere of knowledge or activity having its own specialized culture, social context, and linguistic characteristics

2.3.11

locale

set of characteristics, information, or conventions specific to the linguistic, cultural, technical, and geographical conventions of a target audience

2.4 Concepts related to the people involved in translation services

2.4.1

language service provider

LSP

person or organization who provides language-related services

2.4.2

translation service provider

TSP

language service provider (2.4.1) that provides professional translation services (2.1.6)

EXAMPLE:

Translation companies, individual translators, or in-house translation departments.

Note 1 to entry: Language service provider (LSP) (2.4.1) is a more general term involving other language-related and value-added services but for the purposes of this International Standard, LSPs (2.4.1) are considered to be TSPs when they are providing translation services.

2.4.3

client

customer

person or organization that commissions a translation service (2.1.6) from a TSP (2.4.2) by formal agreement

Note 1 to entry: The client can be the person or organization requesting or purchasing the translation service (2.1.6) and can be external or internal to the TSP’s (2.4.2) organization

2.4.4

translator

person who translates (2.1.1)

2.4.5

reviser

person who revises (2.2.6)target language content (2.3.3) against source language content (2.3.2)

2.4.6

reviewer

person who reviews (2.2.7)target language content (2.3.3)

2.4.7

proofreader

person who proofreads (2.2.8)target language content (2.3.3)

2.4.8

project manager

PM

person who manages specified aspects of a translation project and is responsible for the process

2.4.9

competence

ability to apply knowledge, experience, and skills to achieve intended results

2.5 Concepts related to control of the translation service process

2.5.1

verification

confirmation by the project manager (2.4.8) that specifications have been fulfilled

2.5.2

document

information and its supporting medium

Note 1 to entry: The medium can be paper, magnetic, electronic or optical computer disc, photograph or master sample, or a combination thereof.

Note 2 to entry: A set of documents, e.g. specifications and records (2.5.3), is frequently referred to as “documentation”.

[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2005, 3.7.2]

2.5.3

record

document (2.5.2) or report stating results achieved or providing evidence of activities performed

2.5.4

correction

action taken to correct an error in target language content (2.3.3) or translation process (2.1.4) or a nonconformity to a requirement of this International Standard when conformity has been claimed

Note 1 to entry: Corrections generally arise as a result of errors found when the translator is checking (2.2.5) the target language content (2.3.3), when reported by a reviser (2.4.5) or reviewer (2.4.6) or proofreader (2.4.7) or client (2.4.3), or during an internal or external audit of the implementation of this International Standard.

2.5.5

corrective action

action taken to eliminate the cause of a nonconformity or errors in the translation process (2.1.4) or target language content (2.3.3)

Note 1 to entry: Corrective action involves an investigation to identify what went wrong and what action can be taken to ensure that it does not happen in the same way again.

Translation & Copywriting